Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic health at age 6 years: The generation R study

  • Elisabeth T.M. Leermakers
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Myrte J. Tielemans
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Marion van den Broek
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Vincent W.V. Jaddoe
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Oscar H. Franco
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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  • Jessica C. Kiefte-de Jong
    Affiliations
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands

    Leiden University College, The Hague, The Netherlands
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Published:January 14, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2015.12.017

      Summary

      Background & aims

      Maternal nutrition during pregnancy might be important in influencing offspring cardiometabolic health. However, research has focused mostly on specific nutrients or total energy, and possible effects of whole diet are unclear. We aimed to assess the associations between different dietary patterns during pregnancy and offspring cardiometabolic health among 2592 mother–child pairs from Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study from fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

      Methods

      Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. We identified three a posteriori-dietary patterns, namely a ‘Vegetable, fish and oil’, ‘Nuts, soy and high-fiber cereals’ and ‘Margarine, snacks and sugar’-pattern. An a priori-pattern was created based on the ‘Dutch Healthy Diet Index’. Cardiometabolic health (pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) was measured at the child's age of 6 years.

      Results

      In the crude models, the ‘Vegetable, fish and oil’, ‘Nuts, soy and high-fiber cereals’ and ‘Dutch Healthy Diet Index’ seemed beneficial, as higher adherence to these patterns was significantly associated with lower blood pressure and lower pulse wave velocity. After adjustment for other socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, most associations disappeared, except for lower pulse wave velocity with the ‘Vegetable, fish and oil’-dietary pattern (−0.19 SD (95% CI −0.33; −0.06), highest quartile of adherence vs. lowest quartile). No associations were found between maternal dietary patterns and offspring blood lipids or insulin levels.

      Conclusions

      Our results suggest that there are no consistent independent associations of maternal dietary patterns with offspring cardiometabolic health at 6 years.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      BF% (body fat percentage), DHD-index (Dutch healthy diet index), DBP (diastolic blood pressure), DXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), FFQ (food-frequency questionnaire), HDL-c (HDL cholesterol), ICC (intraclass correlation coefficients), PCA (principal component analysis), PWV (pulse wave velocity), SFA (saturated fat), SD (standard deviation), SDS (standard deviation score), SBP (systolic blood pressure), TFA (transfat)
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