Serum fatty acid imbalance in bone loss: example with periodontal disease

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.


      Among the numerous factors of bone remodelling, the local action of arachidonic acid metabolites together with cytokines, is particularly important, especially that of prostaglandin PGE2. It has been suggested that the alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease and osteoporosis can be treated by reducing the ratio of arachidonic acid in phospholipids, which would diminish prostaglandin production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main serum polyunsaturated fatty acids and a possible alteration in the level of arachidonic acid in patients suffering from periodontal bone loss. Of the 105 patients who participated the study, 78 were suffering from periodontal bone loss and 27 served as a control group. The fatty acids were measured in serum by gas-chromatography. The results showed that the level of fatty acids of the n-6 pathway was higher in our patients with bone loss than in the control group, whereas the reverse was observed with fatty acids of the n-3 pathway. In conclusion, our patients' bone losses are linked with an imbalance between n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, which seems to justify a diet increase in 20- and 22-carbon fatty acids.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Subscribe to Clinical Nutrition
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect



        • Norrdin RW
        • Jee WSS
        • High WB
        The role of Prostaglandins in Bone in vivo.
        Prostaglandins Leukot and Essent Fatty Acids. 1990; 41: 139-149
        • Raisz LG
        • Fall PM
        Biphasic effects of prostaglandin E2 on bone formation in cultured fetal rat calvariae: Interaction with cortisol.
        Endocrinology. 1990; 126: 1654-1659
        • Marusic A
        • Raisz LG
        Cortisol modulates the actions of interleukin 1 α on bone formation, resorption, and prostaglandin production in cultured mouse parietal bones.
        Endocrinology. 1990; 129: 2699-2706
        • de Vernejoul MC
        Cellules osseuses et remodelage osseux.
        Médecine/Sciences. 1993; 9: 1192-1203
        • Dewhrist FE
        • Moss DE
        • Offenbacher S
        • Goodson J Max
        Levels of prostaglandin E2, thromboxane, and prostacyclin in periodontal tissues.
        J Periodont Res. 1983; 18: 156-163
        • Offenbacher S
        • Odle BM
        • Gray RC
        • Van Dyke TE
        Crevicular fluid prostaglandin E levels as a measure of the periodontal disease status of adult and juvenile periodontitis patients.
        J Periodont Res. 1984; 19: 1-14
        • Offenbacher S
        • Odle BM
        • Van Dyke TE
        The use of crevicular fluid prostaglandin E2 levels as a predictor of periodontal attachment loss.
        J Periodont Res. 1986; 21: 101-112
        • Offenbacher S
        • Odle BM
        • Braswell LD
        • Johnson HG
        • Hall CM
        • McClure H
        • Orkin JL
        • Strobert EA
        • Green MD
        Changes in cyclooxygenase metabolites in experimental periodontitis in Macaca muletta.
        J Periodont Res. 1989; 24: 63-74
        • Offenbacher S
        • Williams RC
        • Jeffcoat MK
        • Howell TH
        • Odle BM
        • Smith MA
        • Hall CM
        • Johnson HG
        • Goldhaber P
        Effects of NSAIDs on beagle crevicular cyclooxygenase metabolites and periodontal bone loss.
        J Periodont Res. 1992; 27: 207-213
        • Weaks-Dybvig M
        • Sanavi F
        • Zender H
        • Rifkin BR
        The effect of indomethacine on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis.
        J Periodont Res. 1982; 17: 90-100
        • Jeffcoat MK
        • Williams RC
        • Wechter WJ
        • Johnson HG
        • Kaplan ML
        • Gandrup JS
        • Goldhaber P
        Flurbiprofen treatment of periodontal disease in beagles.
        J Periodont Res. 1986; 21: 624-633
        • Kornman KS
        • Blodgett RF
        • Brunsvold M
        • Holt SC
        Effects of topical applications of meclofenamic acid and ibuprofen on bone loss, subgingival microbiota and gingival PMN response in the Macaca fascicularis.
        J Periodont Res. 1990; 25: 300-307
        • Li KL
        • Vogel R
        • Jeffcoat MK
        • Alfano MC
        • Smith MA
        • Collins JG
        • Offenbacher S
        The effect of ketoprofen creams on periodontal disease in rhesus monkeys.
        J Periodont Res. 1996; 31: 525-532
        • Waite JM
        • Saxton CA
        • Young A
        • Wagg BJ
        • Corbett M
        The periodontal status of subjects receiving non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs.
        J Periodont Res. 1981; 16: 100-108
        • Jeffcoat MK
        • Williams RC
        • Ready MS
        • English R
        • Goldhaber P
        Flurbiprofen treatment of human periodontitis effect on alveolar bone height and metabolism.
        J Periodont Res. 1988; 23: 381-385
        • Jeffcoat MK
        • Page R
        • Reddy M
        • Wannawisute A
        • Waite P
        • Palcanis K
        • Cogen R
        • Williams RC
        • Basch C
        Use of digital radiography to demonstrate the potential of naproxen as an adjunct in the treatment of rapidily progressive periodontitis.
        J Periodont Res. 1991; 26: 415-421
        • Xu H
        • Watkins BA
        • Seifert MF
        Vitamin E Stimulates Trabecular Bone Formation and Alters Epiphysal, Cartilage Morphometry.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1995; 57: 293-300
        • Raisz LG
        Bone Cell Biology: New Approaches and Unanswered Questions.
        J Bone and Mineral Res. 1993; 8: s457-465
        • Watkins BA
        Fatty Acids Modulate Bone Formation and Cartilage Function.
        in: Arthur A International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids. 4,1. Spector, Washington1997
        • Mundy GR
        Cytokines and Growth Factors in the Regulation of Bone Remodelling.
        J Bone Min Res. 1993; 8: s505
        • Boyan D
        • Schwartz Z
        Diagnostic Tools and Biologic Models for Studying Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss.
        J Bone Min Res. 1993; 8: s557-562
        • Aufdemorte B
        • Boyan BD
        • Casey Fox W
        • Miller D
        Diagnostic Tools and Biologic Markers: Animal Models in the Study of Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss.
        J Bone Min Res. 1993; 8: s529-534
        • Pecker F
        • Amadou A
        • Magne S
        • Pavoine C
        Le rôle messager de l'acide arachidonique dans le cardiomyocyte.
        Medecine/Sciences. 1998; 14: 1009-1016
        • Folch J
        • Lees M
        • Sloane-Stanley GH
        A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues.
        J Biol Chem. 1957; 226: 497-509
        • Frost HM
        Perspectives: On a ‘Paradigme Shift’ Developing in Skeletal Science.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1995; 56: 1-4
        • Pilbeam CC
        • Fall PM
        • Alander CB
        • Raisz LG
        Differential Effects of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Constitutive and Inducible Prostaglandin G/H Synthase in Cultured Bone Cells.
        J Bone and Mineral Res. 1997; 12,8
        • Alam SQ
        • Bergens BM
        • Alam BS
        Arachidonic Acid Prostaglandin E2 and Leukotriene C4 Levels in Gingiva and Submandibular Salivary Glands of Rats Fed Diets Containing n–3 Fatty Acids.
        Lipids. 1991; 26,11
        • Alam SQ
        • Kokkinos PP
        • Alam BS
        Fatty Acid Composition and Arachidonic Acid Concentrations in Alveolar Bone of Rats Diets with Different Lipids.
        Calcif Tissue Int. 1993; 53: 330-332
      1. Sicard-Bons, C, Bons, P, Requirand, P, Escola, R, Localisation de facteurs de l'inflammation par immunofluorescence au sein de la muqueuse gingivale, Journal de Parodontologie, 3,4/94, 417, 422

        • Bons-Sicard C
        • Choquet A
        • Escola R
        Localization and quantification of TXB2 in human healthy and inflammatory gingival mucosa.
        J. Periodont Res. 1998; 33: 27-32
        • Zurier RB
        Fatty Acids, Inflammation and Immune Responses.
        Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 1993; 48: 57-62
        • Corey EJ
        • Shih C
        • Cashman JR
        Docosahexaenoic acid is a strong inhibitor of prostaglandin but not leukotriene biosynthesis.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1983; 80: 3581-3584