Association between magnesium status, oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia: A case–control study

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address. Núcleo de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário Professor Antônio Garcia Filho, Rua Padre Álvares Pitangueira 248, Centro, 49400-000 Lagarto, SE, Brazil.
    Vivianne de Sousa Rocha
    Footnotes
    1 Present address. Núcleo de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário Professor Antônio Garcia Filho, Rua Padre Álvares Pitangueira 248, Centro, 49400-000 Lagarto, SE, Brazil.
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 14, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • Fernanda Brunacci Della Rosa
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 14, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Rodrigo Ruano
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Obstetrícia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, Cerqueira César, 01246903 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
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  • Marcelo Zugaib
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Obstetrícia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 455, Cerqueira César, 01246903 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
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  • Célia Colli
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +55 11 3091 3651.
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 14, 05508-000 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Present address. Núcleo de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Universitário Professor Antônio Garcia Filho, Rua Padre Álvares Pitangueira 248, Centro, 49400-000 Lagarto, SE, Brazil.
Published:December 05, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2014.12.001

      Summary

      Background & aims

      Preeclampsia is responsible for more than one-third of all maternal deaths in Brazil. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate magnesium status and its association with oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclamptic women, and to identify the predictor variables of the disorder.

      Methods

      The study population consisted of 36 women divided into preeclamptic (n = 18) and control groups (n = 18). The preeclamptic group included women (≥20 weeks of pregnancy) with arterial pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria >0.3 g/24 h, while the control group comprised pregnant women with no clinical/obstetric complications. Magnesium intake was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire validated for pregnant women in Brazil. Plasma, erythrocyte and urinary magnesium levels were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, while oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were assessed using standard protocols. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of preeclampsia.

      Results

      Preeclamptic and control groups were similar with respect to magnesium intake and urinary excretion, while plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations were higher in the former group. Plasma magnesium was positively correlated with catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and with concentrations of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Regression analysis showed that plasma magnesium and urinary 8-isoprostane were associated with preeclampsia.

      Conclusion

      Magnesium status appears to result from homeostatic imbalance and physiological alterations typical of preeclampsia. Increased plasma magnesium and decreased urinary 8-isoprostane were considered predictors of preeclampsia.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AUC (area under the curve), CAT (catalase), CI (confidence interval), CRP (C-reactive protein), D (difference between magnesium intake and EAR), EAR (estimated average requirement), FFQ (food frequency questionnaire), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), Hb (hemoglobin), HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), IL6 (interleukin 6), MDA (malondialdehyde), NF (nuclear factor), OR (odds ratio), PCTL (percentile), RDA (recommended dietary allowance), ROC (receiver operating characteristic), ROS (reactive oxygen species), SDD (standard deviation of D), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha)
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