- •Higher protein intake is related to a high risk of weight gain and death at long-term.
- •Higher animal protein intake is related to fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes.
- •No association was found between protein intake and abdominal obesity.
Background & aims
Abbreviations:BMI (body mass index), BW (body weight), CI (confidence interval), CVD (cardiovascular disease), E% (percentage of energy), EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition), FFQ (food frequency questionnaire), g prot/kg BW/d (g protein/kg body weight/day), HDL (high-density lipoprotein), HPD (high-protein diet), HPFS (Health Professionals' Follow-up Study), HR (hazard ratio), LC (low carbohydrate), LCHP (LC-high protein), LDL (low-density lipoprotein), LPD (low-protein diet), NHS (Nurses' Health Study), q-trend (quadratic-trend), RCT (randomized controlled trial), T2D (type 2 diabetes), WC (waist circumference)
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